The Tokyo Conference on Consolidation of Peace (DDR) in Afghanistan
- Change of Order "from Guns to Plows" -
February 22. 2003
1. Participants and Purpose
(1) The Tokyo Conference on "Consolidation of Peace" (DDR) in Afghanistan, -- Change of Order "from Guns to Plows" -- was held on 22 February 2003 in Tokyo with the participation of H.E. Hamid Karzai, President of the Afghanistan Transitional Administration ( ATA ) , and other representatives of the ATA. H.E. Yoriko Kawaguchi, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan, addressed the Conference at the outset, followed by Mrs. Sadako Ogata, Japanese Prime Minister's Special Representative for Assistance to Afghanistan, and H.E. Lakhdar Brahimi, the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Afghanistan. Representatives from 34 countries and 12 international organizations attended.
(2) The Conference, marldng the first anniversary of the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan in January 2002, provided the ATA with an opportunity to present its plan for security sector reform, and provided the international community with an opportunity to discuss and endorse such efforts by the ATA.
2. Afghanistan's ownership
(1) The Conference endorsed President Karzai's reiteration of his strong commitment to security sector reform, which is a fundamental requirement for sustainable peace and prosperity. President Karzai confirmed that the detailed DDR programs would be announced on 21 March, 2003. President Karzai further stressed that the achievement of DDR can answer the Afghan people's aspirations for peace by enabling ex-combatants to opt voluntarily for a dignified reintegration into civilian life. President Karzai also noted the intention of the ATA to implement reform and restructuring within the Ministry of Defense, and cited as progress the recent appointment of fifteen individuals to senior positions within the Ministry.
(2) President Karzai set out the recent measures taken by the ATA such as the creation of four DDR related commissions and the DDR Advisory Committee, the latter of which will promote a solid partnership between the ATA and the international community.
(3) The Conference welcomed the following specific DDR policy presented by President Karzai;
- DDR shall be impartial, paying due consideration to the diversity of Afghan society.
- A phased approach will be adopted.
- Disarmament should be completed within a year.
- The Afghanistan's New Beginnings Program (ANBP) will be established to implement demobilization and reintegration.
3. DDR: Parameters
(1) The Conference recognized that DDR is an integral part of Afghanistan's security sector reform, in full coordination with other efforts such as the creation of the new Afghan National Army (ANA) and Police.
(2) The implementation plan of DDR outlined by the ATA, Japan and UNAMA was endorsed by the participants. The main components of the plan are as follows;
- The beneficiaries are "security personnel on active duty".
- Actual disarmament will be conducted by ATA authorities in a transparent and accountable manner with international observers.
- Transit Centers will be established to process the disarmament of soldiers prior to demobilization.
- The Kabul Military Training Center (KMTC) led by the U.S. will maximize intake capacity during the period of disarmament.
- Longer term and stable employment opportunities will be developed in coordination with other reconstruction initiatives.
4. Commitments by the International Community
(1) The Conference welcomed and endorsed the ATA's ongoing efforts to develop a detailed DDR implementation plan for an announcement on 21 March. Participants expressed their firm support for the advancement of DDR in partnership with the ATA. The Conference also reaffirmed that, along with ANA, counter-narcotics, police, and judicial reform, DDR is imperative to restore security. Participants reaffirmed the need for the international community as well as Afghan authorities to coordinate security sector reform efforts with the appropriate lead nations. The Conference recognized the usefulness of a single approach for the DDR process and, to that end, welcomed the decision to establish the "Partnership for Peace ANBP" as the main vehicle to implement the DDR programs.
(2) At the Conference, Japan pledged a contribution of 35 million dollars for the development and implementation of the DDR programs in addition to in-kind cooperation through vocational training for Reintegration and dispatching experts. Pledges were also made or reaffirmed by the U.S. (10 million dollars), the U.K. (3.5 million dollars) and Canada (2.2 million dollars). The need for additional financial resources was stressed for the successful implementation of DDR.
(3) The Conference stressed the need for the DDR programs to be explained to the Afghan people: public confidence in its success would be crucial. The Conference also recognized that reconstruction assistance, economic development, and security sector reform must be pursued together.
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