19th Japan-EU Summit
Tokyo, 28 April 2010
Joint Press Statement
Mr Yukio Hatoyama, Prime Minister of Japan, Mr Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council, and Mr José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, met in Tokyo on 28 April 2010 for the 19th Summit between Japan and the European Union (EU). Mr Katsuya Okada, Foreign Minister of Japan, Mr Masayuki Naoshima, Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan, Baroness Catherine Ashton, High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Mr Karel De Gucht, European Commissioner for Trade, also attended the Summit to assist their leaders.
As well as discussing Japan-EU bilateral relations, Summit leaders exchanged views on a number of key international questions. At the conclusion of the Summit, the leaders concurred that the discussions had been useful for charting a path for the future strengthening of the relationship. Summit leaders noted with satisfaction that they had been able to firm up Japan-EU common positions on important global and regional challenges facing the international community. In a number of areas, they were able to identify concrete short-term cooperation priorities.
The main points emerging from the Summit are summarised below. Further details are contained in the Annex.
Year of renewal: towards a more action-oriented partnership
- Summit leaders reaffirmed their strong conviction that Japan and the EU are united by a shared commitment to fundamental values and principles, in particular, democracy, the rule of law and human rights. They are both also deeply committed to the market-based economy and to sustainable development.
- Summit leaders recognised that 2010 is a year of renewal. Japan experienced a political renewal with its change of government in September 2009. With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the EU has engaged in institutional renewal. They shared the view that this provided an opportunity to renew the Japan-EU relationship, to take it to a higher level and to strengthen cooperation.
- Summit leaders welcomed the progress in developing Japan-EU relations since the last Summit. They underlined the potential of the relationship and stressed that there is much more to be done between Japan and the EU. Summit leaders stressed that Japan and the EU -- as like-minded global partners and major economies -- should systematically aim to work more closely together, both bilaterally and globally. They called for future Japan-EU cooperation to focus on developing and promoting common positions and on joint projects aiming at concrete results.
- Summit leaders decided to establish a joint High-Level Group to identify options for the comprehensive strengthening of all aspects of Japan-EU relations and defining the framework for implementing it, building on the experience of the Joint Declaration of 1991 and the Action Plan of 2001.
- In this context, the joint High-Level Group will conduct a joint examination of the ways to comprehensively strengthen and integrate the Japan-EU economic relationship addressing all issues of interest to both sides including, for instance, all tariffs, non-tariff measures, services, investment in services and non-services sectors, Intellectual Property Rights and government procurement.
- At the Summit meeting in 2011, Summit leaders will decide on any appropriate next steps based on the outcome and the options for the further strengthening of Japan-EU political and economic relations identified by the joint High-Level Group.
Other concrete Japan-EU initiatives identified at the Summit
- Summit leaders have identified the following initiatives which are concrete examples of the more action-oriented manner in which they wish to see Japan-EU cooperation develop in the future.
Japan-EU cooperation in Afghanistan
- Japan and the EU reconfirmed their intention to work together -- and in active partnership with the Afghan government, the United Nations (UN) and other international partners -- to promote a secure, stable and prosperous future for the people of Afghanistan. They welcomed their successful cooperation on the ground with the Provincial Reconstruction Teams. They confirmed their readiness to seek possible cooperation on security, reintegration and development assistance, in the context of the EU's Action Plan for Afghanistan and Pakistan adopted in October 2009 and Japan's assistance package to Afghanistan and Pakistan announced in November 2009. In this regard, they decided:
- To continue to explore cooperation between Japan and the EU in the field of assistance for the capacity building of the Afghan police including improvement of facilities in Ghor Province.
- To hold a capacity building seminar in Tajikistan that aims to enhance border management capacity of the countries neighbouring Afghanistan.
Japan's contribution to the EU Common Security and Defence Policy
- Summit leaders underlined the importance of supporting national efforts of countries emerging from conflict to achieve sustainable peace. Japan highly appreciated crisis management and post-conflict peace-building activities being conducted by the EU under the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). Japan expressed its interest in contributing civilian personnel to CSDP civilian missions for the first time and the EU welcomed it.
Joint efforts on counter-piracy
- Summit leaders reiterated the importance of continuing their efforts to address the increasing threat posed by pirates to the safety of maritime navigation off the coast of Somalia and the Gulf of Aden and to stability in the region. They commended the fruitful interaction to this end between the units of the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force and EU NAVFOR Somalia Operation ATALANTA present in the zone. They decided to coordinate in supporting the activities of the planned Djibouti regional training centre and the information-sharing centres in Yemen, Kenya and Tanzania.
Japan-EU consultation mechanisms
- Summit leaders decided to continue regular consultation mechanisms for substantial cooperation on global and bilateral issues at Summit and ministerial level.
Japan-EU cooperation on key global issues
Climate change and environment
- Summit leaders recognised climate change as one of the greatest challenges facing the international community, and welcomed the marked convergence between Japan and the EU on this issue since the last Japan-EU Summit. They shared the conviction that Japan and the EU should exercise joint leadership, achieving their current targets under the Kyoto Protocol, and strive for early adoption of a robust and effective legally binding agreement which establishes a fair and effective new international framework with participation by all major economies, respecting experience learned from the Kyoto Protocol. They reaffirmed their association with the Copenhagen Accord, and considered that the UNFCCC negotiating process should lead to the creation of a comprehensive agreement based on the Accord, recognizing the scientific view that the increase in global temperature should be held below 2 degrees centigrade. They called for remaining UNFCCC Parties to associate themselves with the Accord and to submit ambitious targets or actions.
- Summit leaders concurred on the need for close cooperation to curb the man-made destruction of the natural environment. They shared the view that Japan and the EU should cooperate to ensure the success of the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity which Japan will host in Nagoya, Aichi, in October.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
- Summit leaders expressed concern at the negative impact of the global financial and economic crisis on developing countries and at the slow pace in achieving the MDGs, particularly in Africa. They stressed the need for reinvigorated collective action to accelerate progress, in order for the MDGs to be achieved by 2015, with a special emphasis on supporting fragile states and on meeting those MDGs which are most off-track such as education and health. They called for ambitious outcomes from the UN High-Level Plenary Meeting to be held in September 2010, and committed to work together to this end.
Promoting Peace and Security
- Summit leaders welcomed the signing of the new START treaty by the United States and the Russian Federation. Summit leaders reaffirmed the commitment to seeking a safer world for all, and to creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons, in accordance with the goals of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). They also expressed their intention to redouble efforts on practical measures to accomplish that purpose such as the pursuit of comprehensive reductions of nuclear arsenals. They called on all states to join this endeavour.
- Summit leaders welcomed the successful outcomes of the Nuclear Security Summit held in Washington D.C. on 12-13 April 2010, and reaffirmed their commitment to strengthening nuclear security worldwide.
- Summit leaders shared the opinion that Japan and the EU should cooperate closely, with a view to ensuring that the 2010 NPT Review Conference is successful in strengthening the Treaty, reaffirming its central role in the international disarmament and non-proliferation regime, and attaining a meaningful and balanced outcome on its three pillars, namely disarmament, non-proliferation and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
- Summit leaders, given the importance of the role that the International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) plays in both nuclear non-proliferation and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, stressed that the comprehensive safeguards agreement together with the additional protocol should become the verification standard.
- Summit leaders expressed serious concern over Iran's nuclear programme and continued failure to meet its international obligations. They regretted that Iran has so far not seized the opportunity to engage constructively with China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and the High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. They strongly urged Iran to cooperate fully with the IAEA and to comply without delay with the relevant UN Security Council Resolutions. They reaffirmed the importance of unity of the international community and expressed -- consistent with the dual-track approach -- their commitment to take necessary measures, including additional UN sanctions for a peaceful resolution.
- Summit leaders welcomed the convening of the UN Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty in 2012 which aims to elaborate a legally binding instrument on the highest possible common international standards for the transfer of conventional arms. They reaffirmed that Japan and the EU will cooperate closely to achieve a strong and robust treaty.
- Given the growing role of China within the region as well as in international relations, Summit leaders stressed the importance of working with China as a responsible and constructive partner in the international community. The Japanese leader expressed the view that the issue of arms embargo deserves careful consideration in the light of the regional security environment.
- Summit leaders recognised the necessity of addressing the outstanding issues of concern with North Korea, in particular the nuclear issue, the missile issue and the human rights issue, including the abduction issue. They reaffirmed the importance of the steady implementation of the UN Security Council Resolutions 1718 and 1874. Furthermore, they urged North Korea to take positive and concrete measures, with a view to the complete, verifiable and irreversible denuclearisation, including prompt return to the Six-Party Talks without preconditions and to the full implementation of the September 2005 Joint Statement.
Global economy, finance and trade
- Summit leaders stressed the need for maintaining close global policy coordination to underpin the emerging recovery in the world economy. They called for steadfast implementation of the commitments made at the previous G20 Summits. They pledged that Japan and the EU would work closely together to ensure the success of the G20 Summits in Toronto in June and in Seoul in November.
- Summit leaders underlined their shared commitment to a rapid conclusion of the WTO Doha Round on balanced, comprehensive and ambitious terms, as it would be a powerful driver for future economic growth. They also committed to a rapid, ambitious and balanced conclusion of negotiations on the revision of the Government Procurement Agreement and to making all efforts towards the completion of negotiations of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) in 2010.
- Summit leaders also exchanged their visions on developments regarding their respective new growth strategies (Japan's New Growth Strategy and Europe 2020 Strategy). They noted a number of commonalities both in terms of the economic challenges faced by Japan and the EU, and the responses proposed. They reaffirmed the importance of continuing bilateral dialogue in this area, with a view to exchanging best practices and sharing experience.
- Summit leaders reviewed and welcomed the progress made over the past year regarding "a few specific non tariff issues" under paragraph 34 of the Joint Press Statement of the EU-Japan Summit of 2009. They stressed the importance of continuing to work together on those issues in the context of the joint High-Level Group and of successfully completing that work.
Summit leaders underlined the importance of dialogues between Japan and the EU in coordinating positions on key issues of common interest. They shared their intention to explore more systematically possibilities to develop and promote joint positions in international fora as well as joint actions aiming at concrete results.
1. Bilateral cooperation
They welcomed the ideas generated by the symposium on the future of Japan-EU relations held in February 2010 in Brussels and attended by a wide range of civil society actors from both Japan and the EU.
Economy and trade
Summit leaders reaffirmed that Japan and the EU will continue to expand and deepen their economic and trade relationship, including through cooperation in:
- Successfully completing the process regarding "a few specific non tariff issues" under paragraph 34 of the Joint Press Statement of the EU-Japan Summit of 2009;
- Pursuing tangible efforts to prevent and alleviate non-tariff measures having an impact on trade and investment, in particular by promoting transparency on regulatory policy and by using existing bilateral dialogues and;
- Promoting further transparency and enhanced access to the respective government procurement markets.
Summit leaders recognised the value of the work of the Japan-EU Business Round Table and continued to have a strong interest in the discussion between the business communities of both sides.
Research and innovation
Japan and the EU will deepen their collaboration on research and development of innovative technologies.
Priorities will include:
- To implement the recently signed Agreement between Japan and the European Community on Cooperation in Science and Technology, which is to enter into force at the earliest possible opportunity.
- To jointly identify priority areas for encouraging cooperation. These could include green and low carbon technologies, materials science,ICT and space applications.
- To commit to the political and scientific success of the ITER Project and Broader Approach activities towards the realisation of thermonuclear fusion, and to make the utmost efforts for the early adoption of the baseline document of the ITER project.
Summit leaders welcomed the progress made in the field of customs since the entry into force of the Agreement on Co-operation and Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs Matters in 2008, in particular the Mutual Recognition of Authorised Economic Operators Programmes to be adopted by the end of June 2010. Japan reaffirmed its full support for the EU's timely accession to the World Customs Organisation.
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
Summit leaders confirmed that Japan and the EU will continue to strengthen their cooperation on Intellectual Property Rights at both bilateral and multilateral levels, by implementing the Japan-EU Action Plan on IPR Protection and Enforcement adopted at the EU-Japan Summit of 2007.
Summit leaders recognised the importance of ensuring high levels of consumer protection, and reaffirmed their intention to continue to implement the Annex to the Joint Press Statement of the Japan-EU Summit of 2008; on Japan-EU Cooperation on Consumer Safety and Protection.
Summit leaders committed to continued bilateral cooperation on energy security, sustainable energy policies and energy technologies. They also recognised the value of dialogue between producing and consuming countries, in particular within the International Energy Forum and the Energy Charter Treaty. They emphasised the importance of developing and spreading renewable energy sources, and looked forward to the entry into force of the statute of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). They also emphasised their close cooperation on energy efficiency and the promotion of low carbon technologies, including through the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC).
Legal assistance in criminal matters
Summit leaders welcomed the signing of the Agreement between Japan and the EU on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters and reiterated the importance of bringing the Agreement into force as expeditiously as possible, thus enabling more effective cooperation to be established in this area.
Summit leaders confirmed that Japan and the EU will examine ways to step up the exchange of people, with a view to enhancing mutual understanding and fostering cooperation.
Priorities will include:
- To hold an ad-hoc higher education policy seminar in June 2010 in Tokyo.
- To explore ways to step up academic exchanges, building on experiences gained in earlier education projects and the Erasmus Mundus Programme.
- To explore ways to promote other types of exchanges e.g. between think tanks, journalists, politicians, diplomats and administrations.
2. Cooperation on global issues
Global Economy and Finance
Summit leaders reaffirmed that Japan and the EU will work closely together on international economic cooperation, especially within the G20.
Priorities will include:
- To strive for the implementation by all parties of the G20 Framework for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth.
- To maintain momentum in the reform of financial regulation and lead international cooperation in this field.
- To implement commitments to reform of the International Financial Institutions, including a shift in the IMF quota share from over-represented to under-represented countries.
- To continue cooperative and coordinated approaches for undertaking fiscal consolidation.
Summit leaders shared the view that Japan and the EU will exercise joint leadership in the field of climate change and promote the development of a sustainable low carbon global economy.
Priorities will include:
- To encourage all the remaining Parties which have not yet done so to associate themselves with the Copenhagen Accord, and to encourage those Parties which are in a position to do so to submit ambitious targets or actions.
- To strive for early adoption of a robust and effective legally binding agreement, which establishes a fair and effective international framework with participation by all major economies, with the shared view that the UNFCCC negotiating process should lead the discussion to create one comprehensive agreement based on the Accord.
- To encourage efforts in various countries, in particular other major economies, to take further ambitious actions while ensuring transparency, underlining the necessity to reduce global Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by at least 50% by 2050 from 1990 level and, as part of this, to reduce GHG emissions by developed countries in aggregate by 80% or more.
- To cooperate closely and exchange experience in the development of domestic emissions trading systems and explore how such systems could be developed and operated to reduce GHG emissions steadily and efficiently.
- To pursue the reform of the Clean Development Mechanism, including expansion of areas such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and the introduction of new mechanisms, and exchange views on how to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions.
- To continue with the implementation of "fast-start" funding activities for 2010-2012 as part of concrete assistance programmes or projects for mitigation and adaptation measures by developing countries, and to encourage transparency of this effort as well as the mobilisation of private finance.
- To cooperate closely and exchange experience in the development, deployment and transfer of technologies in sectors such as power generation, industry, transportation, architecture, residential, agriculture, forestry, and CCS.
- To establish REDD-plus mechanism, while ensuring its environmental integrity, to encourage more efficient and effective emission reduction actions globally.
Summit leaders confirmed that Japan and the EU will also step up cooperation aiming at the reduction and elimination of barriers to trade in environmental goods and services in appropriate fora.
Summit leaders reaffirmed their commitment to cooperate closely to ensure the success of the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Priorities will include:
- To promote the development of an ambitious vision and of ambitious but realistic, and measurable short-term, targets for biodiversity beyond 2010, acknowledging that these should be acceptable to the international community, including developing countries.
- To support the completion of negotiations of an international regime on ABS (access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources).
- To support the adoption of balanced and effective international rules in the field of liability and redress in the context of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
- To support the establishment of an inter-governmental science-policy platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services as soon as possible in 2010
Millennium Development Goals/ Development
Summit leaders confirmed that Japan and the EU will define concrete ways of contributing, particularly in Africa, to collective efforts to meet the MDGs, where the aspect of human security is essential.
Priorities will include:
- Follow up discussions of the Japan-EU policy dialogue on development on issues such as MDGs, public opinion and outreach, innovative financing, aid and development effectiveness, and climate change financing.
- Reflect the perspective of protecting and empowering individuals as a key input at the High-Level Plenary Meeting of the sixty-fifth session of the UN General Assembly.
Non-proliferation and disarmament
Summit leaders reaffirmed that they would work closely together for an early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, the completion of its verification regime, and the dismantling as soon as possible of all nuclear testing facilities in a manner that is transparent and open to the international community. They also concurred on the need to work together for the opening without delay and without preconditions of negotiations for a treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons, with verification provisions, in the Conference on Disarmament (CD).
Summit leaders also shared their intention to strengthen existing Japan-EU cooperation on outer space, in the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), the Conference on Disarmament and as regards the EU initiative on "Code of Conduct for outer space activities".
Summit leaders reiterated their strong commitment to the fight against terrorism and support for the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. In this regard, they exchanged appreciation for their respective assistance efforts to build counter-terrorism capacity in countries such as Pakistan and Yemen, and in the Southeast Asian region.
Summit leaders expressed their support for effective multilateralism and for the central role of the UN in international affairs. They underlined the importance of fully implementing the reforms of the UN system adopted at the 2005 UN Summit, including reform of the main UN bodies, as referred to in the outcome document, in order to strengthen the UN's capacity to effectively address global challenges. Summit leaders also underscored the importance of further multilateral cooperation, including in the work of the Human Rights Council and the Peace-building Commission.
Summit leaders welcomed the Report of the Secretary General of the UN on Human Security and reaffirmed their intention to cooperate in this concept in the UN and other international fora. In this regard, they stressed the need for the UN General Assembly to discuss issues relating to human security in accordance with the 2005 World Summit Outcome.
Reflecting the common values shared by Japan and the EU, Summit leaders were of the view that Japan and the EU should further expand their cooperation on human rights, both on the basis of their twice yearly consultations and their cooperation within the Human Rights Council.
International Criminal Court (ICC)
Summit leaders their reaffirmed the full support to the ICC and its key role in ensuring accountability for the most serious crimes of international concern. Japan and the EU will work together to further enhance the effectiveness of the court and will contribute to the effort of promoting the full universalisation of the Rome Statute.
Responsibility to protect
Summit leaders also stressed the need for the UN General Assembly (UNGA), in accordance with the UNGA resolution 63/308, to continue considerations of the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity and its implications, bearing in mind the principles of the UN Charter and international law, as stated in the 2005 World Summit Outcome.
3. Cooperation on regional issues
Summit leaders underlined the usefulness of strategic dialogues on East Asia, and Central Asia, and in general of regular exchanges of assessment on developments in their respective neighbourhood. Summit leaders shared their intention to strengthen their operational cooperation, acknowledging the importance of making it more action-oriented in promoting international peace and stability.
They expressed interest in exploring possible areas of cooperation in policies and programmes aimed at stabilising the EU's neighbourhood, including in the Western Balkans and within the Eastern Partnership, the Black Sea Synergy and the Union for the Mediterranean.
East Asian regional integration
Summit leaders recognised the importance of building, in the long run, an East Asian community based on the principle of openness, transparency and inclusiveness and functional cooperation. Recognizing that the East Asia Summit (EAS) was a forum driven by ASEAN in close partnership with its other participants, Japan welcomed the EU's continued interest on greater EAS engagement and its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia.
Summit leaders acknowledged the important role of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) as a platform for dialogue, cooperation and policy development between the two regions with the view of further contributing to the development of the globalised international community. They also recognised that it is high time for ASEM to move from "a dialogue mode" to "a partnership" between the two regions in enhancing political, economic and cultural exchange. In this regard, they looked forward to ASEM 8 to be held in Brussels, Belgium, on 4-5 October in 2010.
Middle East Peace Process
Summit leaders stressed the special importance of making efforts to establish a just, comprehensive and lasting peace in the Middle East. They shared the view of a two-state solution with the State of Israel and an independent, democratic, contiguous and viable Palestinian State, living side by side in peace and security. They shared the view that the resumption of peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians is urgently needed. Summit leaders expressed strong support to the efforts by the Palestinian Authority to implement its state-building plan and its commitment to further invest in the Palestinian institutions, and indicated that they will explore possibilities for further coordination to promote the Middle East Peace Process, including cooperation in Palestinian State-building efforts.
The Summit leaders expressed their concerns about the recently adopted restrictive electoral laws. They called for the elections planned for 2010 to be transparent, fully inclusive, free and fair. They also called on the Government of Myanmar to release all political prisoners, including Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. The Summit leaders expressed their readiness to respond positively to substantive political progress. They reaffirmed their full support for the UN Secretary General's Mission of Good Offices and called on the Government to cooperate fully with him.
Summit leaders took note of the results of the Presidential and the recent Parliamentary elections in Sri Lanka. In this context, they urged the Government and all communities in Sri Lanka to make concrete efforts to overcome the divisions of the past and to move on to genuine reconciliation, in order to achieve long-term security and prosperity. Summit leaders will work together to encourage and support Sri Lankan efforts to achieve these goals.
Summit leaders reconfirmed their intention to cooperate closely with Africa including the African Union and to continually support Africa's development and progress including towards the MDGs through the TICAD (Tokyo International Conference on African Development) process and under the Joint Africa-EU Strategy. Furthermore, recognising the importance of peace and security in Africa, they shared the view that they would actively extend assistance for enhancing Africa's peace-keeping capability as well as for promoting democratisation.
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