Osaka Official Information

The Osaka Action Agenda

Implementation of the Bogor Declaration


PART ONE: LIBERALIZATION AND FACILITATION

SECTION A: GENERAL PRINCIPLES

The following General Principles will be applied to the entire APEC liberalization and facilitation process under the Action Agenda to achieve the long-term goal of free and open trade and investment no later than the year 2010 in the case of industrialized economies and the year 2020 in the case of developing economies.

  1. COMPREHENSIVENESS
    The APEC liberalization and facilitation process will be comprehensive, addressing all impediments to achieving the long-term goal of free and open trade and investment.
  2. WTO-CONSISTENCY
    The liberalization and facilitation measures undertaken in the context of the APEC Action Agenda will be WTO-consistent.
  3. COMPARABILITY
    APEC economies will endeavor to ensure the overall comparability of their trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, taking into account the general level of liberalization and facilitation already achieved by each APEC economy.
  4. NON-DISCRIMINATION
    APEC economies will apply or endeavor to apply the principle of non-discrimination between and among them in the process of liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment.
    The outcome of trade and investment liberalization in the Asia-Pacific region will be the actual reduction of barriers not only among APEC economies but also between APEC economies and non-APEC economies.
  5. TRANSPARENCY
    Each APEC economy will ensure transparency of its respective laws, regulations and administrative procedures which affect the flow of goods, services and capital among APEC economies in order to create and maintain an open and predictable trade and investment environment in the Asia-Pacific region.
  6. STANDSTILL
    Each APEC economy will endeavor to refrain from using measures which would have the effect of increasing levels of protection, thereby ensuring a steady and progressive trade and investment liberalization and facilitation process.
  7. SIMULTANEOUS START, CONTINUOUS PROCESS AND DIFFERENTIATED TIME TABLES
    APEC economies will begin simultaneously and without delay the process of liberalization, facilitation and cooperation with each member economy contributing continuously and significantly to achieve the long-term goal of free and open trade and investment.
  8. FLEXIBILITY
    Considering the different levels of economic development among the APEC economies and the diverse circumstances in each economy, flexibility will be available in dealing with issues arising from such circumstances in the liberalization and facilitation process.
  9. COOPERATION
    Economic and technical cooperation contributing to liberalization and facilitation will be actively pursued.

SECTION B: FRAMEWORK FOR LIBERALIZATION AND FACILITATION

The APEC process of liberalization and facilitation toward achieving the goals set out in the Bogor Declaration will comprise:

  1. actions by individual APEC economies;
  2. actions by APEC fora; and
  3. APEC actions related to multilateral fora,

acknowledging that APEC economies that are ready to initiate and implement cooperative arrangements may proceed to do so while those that are not yet ready to participate may join at a later date. This process will be conducted in accordance with the General Principles, addressing the areas listed in Section C.

ACTION PROCESS

Preparation
Each APEC economy will begin to develop its Action Plan immediately after the Osaka Economic Leaders' Meeting. This Action Plan will elaborate steps toward achieving the objectives set out in Section C, including both concerted unilateral actions to be taken in line with issue-specific guidelines and collective actions. Action Plans will contain specific and concrete details, with time frames, for the near to medium-term, while outlining the basic direction toward 2010 in the case of industrialized economies and 2020 in the case of developing economies.

Consultation
APEC economies will commence informal consultations on the development of Action Plans immediately after the Osaka Economic Leaders' Meeting. The consultation process will be an on-going collective effort of a confidence-building nature in order to facilitate exchange of information on progress in the preparation of Action Plans, ensuring transparency and contributing toward attaining the comparability of respective Action Plans. This process will contribute to the consequent development of significant and substantial Action Plans.

Submission
Each APEC economy will submit its Action Plan to the 1996 Ministerial Meeting in the Philippines for assessment.

Implementation
Overall implementation of Action Plans will begin as of January 1997.

Review
Reviews will be conducted to assess progress in implementing Action Plans in accordance with principles, objectives and guidelines of the Action Agenda. Each relevant APEC forum will conduct a review in its respective area and submit a report thereon to the Senior Officials Meeting (SOM). The SOM will then review the overall progress of APEC economies' actions and submit a report to the annual Ministerial Meeting for review. The outcome of these reviews will be fed back into the continuing consultation process to contribute to further development of Action Plans and will be reflected in the activities of APEC fora.

Revision
As Action Plans are of a rolling nature, revision of these will be conducted through a progressive and dynamic mechanism established by the consultation process and reviews, with the results thereof being reflected in the continuing voluntary improvement of Action Plans. Action Plans will also be revised as appropriate in accordance with the expansion and improvement of guidelines and collective actions.

Parallel activities
APEC fora will make proposals for the expansion and improvement of guidelines and collective actions in their respective areas in accordance with developments in the APEC liberalization and facilitation process, taking into account and, where appropriate, utilizing developments in other international fora, particularly the World Trade Organization (WTO). The inclusion of additional areas to those initially defined in Section C may be considered. Proposals on the above will be submitted to the Ministerial Meeting.

APEC fora, including the Committee on Trade and Investment (CTI), the Economic Committee (EC) and Working Groups, will begin the work outlined in Section C immediately after the Osaka Economic Leaders' Meeting, cooperating with each other to enhance the efficiency of APEC activities. The establishment of additional sub-groups may be considered where necessary. In the above process, duplication of work among APEC fora should be avoided.

Each APEC forum will submit an annual progress report to the SOM. The SOM will review this progress and submit a report to the annual Ministerial Meeting for review. Work by other relevant APEC Ministerial Meetings should be duly recognized.

MULTILATERAL ACTIONS
APEC economies will take the lead in strengthening the open multilateral trading system and enhancing global liberalization momentum by participating actively and positively in multilateral negotiations and exploring the possibility of taking joint initiatives under the WTO, including initiatives for the first WTO Ministerial Meeting in Singapore. APEC economies will take fully into account the outcome of such multilateral activities.

OVERALL REVIEW
The Action Agenda may be revised and improved as necessary based on the overall progress of liberalization, facilitation and cooperation in APEC, taking into account developments in other international fora, particularly the WTO.

SECTION C: ACTIONS IN SPECIFIC AREAS

APEC economies will take the following actions in specific areas in order to achieve the objectives set out therein in accordance with the General Principles. In the course of the liberalization and facilitation process, economic and technical cooperation will be actively pursued through various means including Partners for Progress (PFP).

  1. TARIFFS

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will achieve free and open trade in the Asia-Pacific region by:

    1. progressively reducing tariffs; and
    2. ensuring the transparency of APEC economies' respective tariff regimes.
    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will:

    1. take into account, in the process of progressive reduction of tariffs, intra-APEC trade trends, economic interests and sectors or products related to industries in which this process may have positive impact on trade and on economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region;
    2. ensure that the progressive reduction of tariffs is not undermined by the application of unjustifiable measures; and
    3. consider extending, on a voluntary basis, to all APEC economies the benefits of tariff reductions and eliminations derived from sub-regional arrangements.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. develop and keep current a computerized tariff database (APEC tariff database) and work toward establishing a database network without duplicating but rather supporting the WTO work in this area; and
    2. identify industries in which the progressive reduction of tariffs may have positive impact on trade and on economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region or for which there is regional industry support for early liberalization.
  1. NON-TARIFF MEASURES

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will achieve free and open trade in the Asia-Pacific region by:

    1. progressively reducing non-tariff measures; and
    2. ensuring the transparency of APEC economies' respective non-tariff measures.
    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will:

    1. take into account, in the process of progressive reduction of non-tariff measures, intra-APEC trade trends, economic interests and sectors or products related to industries in which this process may have positive impact on trade and on economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region;
    2. ensure that the progressive reduction of non-tariff measures is not undermined by the application of unjustifiable measures; and
    3. consider extending, on a voluntary basis, to all APEC economies the benefits of reductions and eliminations of non-tariff measures derived from sub-regional arrangements.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. pursue incorporation of information on non-tariff measures into a future version of the APEC tariff database and compile a list of measures recognized as non-tariff impediments and a list of products affected by these impediments;
    2. identify industries in which the progressive reduction of non-tariff measures may have positive impact on trade and on economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region or for which there is regional industry support for early liberalization;
    3. progressively reduce export subsidies with a view to abolishing them; and
    4. abolish unjustifiable export prohibitions and restrictions and endeavor to refrain from taking any such new measures.
  1. SERVICES

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will achieve free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region by:

    1. progressively reducing restrictions on market access for trade in services; and
    2. progressively providing for inter-alia most favored nation (MFN) treatment and national treatment for trade in services.
    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will:

    1. contribute positively to the WTO negotiations on trade in services;
    2. expand commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) on market access and national treatment and eliminate MFN exemptions where appropriate; and
    3. consider undertaking further actions to facilitate supply of services.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will take the following Collective Actions with regard to services in the telecommunications, transportation, energy and tourism sectors, and continue to seek Collective Actions in other sectors.

    TELECOMMUNICATIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. conform, where appropriate, to the Guidelines for Trade in International Value-Added Network Services (IVANS) by 1998;
    2. generally conform, where appropriate, to the Guidelines for Harmonization of Equipment Certification in the immediate term;
    3. continue to work jointly to harmonize administrative procedures governing certification of customer telecommunications equipment; and
    4. develop and begin to implement on an elective basis a model Mutual Recognition Arrangement on conformity assessment by the end of 1997.
    TRANSPORTATION
    APEC economies will:

    1. promote the implementation of International Civil Aviation Organization and International Maritime Organization standards, regulations and safety measures;
    2. complete the Transportation Road Transport Harmonization Project and encourage the development of mutual recognition arrangements for road vehicles;
    3. encourage involvement in dialogue with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and strive to move towards harmonization of road vehicle regulations within an appropriate international forum;
    4. examine the possibility of taking appropriate steps to facilitate privatization or corporatization of transportation infrastructure projects;
    5. after completing in 1995, Phase II of the Transportation Electronic Data Interchange Study identifying barriers to transportation industry use of Electronic Data Interchange, initiate a pilot Electronic Data Interchange trial program, and determine future direction in the adoption of Electronic Data Interchange as widely as possible throughout the transport sector in the region; and
    6. seek to eliminate the requirement for paper documents (both regulatory and institutional) for the key messages relevant to international transport and trade as soon as practicable within the next 10 years.
    ENERGY
    APEC economies will:

    1. facilitate investment in the energy sector by:
      (i) identifying, by the end of 1996, institutional, regulatory and procedural impediments that affect investment in electricity infrastructure;
      (ii) developing, by the end of 1996, a guidance framework to facilitate investment;
      (iii) developing, by the end of 1999, coordinated solutions to more complex issues based on the outcomes of the above activities, and extending these activities to other aspects of the energy supply chain where appropriate; and
      (iv) considering, in the long-term, issues associated with facilitating transborder infrastructure and the financing thereof;
    2. accept equivalence in accreditation and increase harmonization of energy standards by;
      (i) establishing, by the end of 1996, the basis for the mutual recognition of testing protocols and the accreditation of laboratories, and the acceptance of the test results arising from them;
      (ii) reaching, by the end of 1999, agreement on the mutual recognition of testing protocols and the accreditation of laboratories, and the acceptance of the test results arising from them; and
      (iii) extending, in the long-term, work on energy standards to specific products starting from domestic appliances and going on to selected items of industrial and commercial equipment.
    TOURISM
    APEC economies will identify impediments to tourism growth and formulate strategies that will improve tourism movements and investment in the Asia-Pacific region.
  1. INVESTMENT

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will achieve free and open investment in the Asia-Pacific region by:

    1. liberalizing their respective investment regimes and the overall APEC investment environment by, inter-alia, progressively providing for MFN treatment and national treatment and ensuring transparency; and
    2. facilitating investment activities through, inter alia, technical assistance and cooperation.
    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will:

    1. progressively reduce or eliminate exceptions and restrictions to achieve the above objective, using as an initial framework the WTO Agreement, the APEC Non-Binding Investment Principles, any other international agreements relevant to that economy, and any commonly agreed guidelines developed in APEC; and
    2. explore expansion of APEC's network of bilateral investment agreements.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. increase, in the short term, the transparency of APEC investment regimes by (i) updating the "APEC Guidebook On Investment Regimes" as appropriate to reflect changes in regimes; (ii) establishing software networks on investment regulations and investment opportunities; and (iii) improving the state of statistical reporting and data collection;
    2. promote, in the short term, an on-going mechanism for dialogue with the APEC business community on ways to improve the APEC investment environment;
    3. identify, in the short term, on-going technical cooperation needs in the Asia-Pacific region and organize training programs which will assist APEC economies in fulfilling APEC investment objectives;
    4. establish, in the short term, a dialogue process with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and other international fora involved in global and regional investment issues;
    5. define and implement, in the short term, follow-on training to the Uruguay Round implementation seminars;
    6. undertake an evaluation of the role of investment liberalization in economic development in the Asia-Pacific region;
    7. study, in the medium term, possible common elements between existing sub-regional arrangements relevant to investment;
    8. refine, in the medium term, APEC's understanding of "free and open investment"; and
    9. assess, in the long-term, the merits of developing an APEC-wide discipline on investment in the light of APEC's own progress through the medium term as well as developments in other international fora.
  1. STANDARDS AND CONFORMANCE

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will, in accordance with the Declaration on APEC Standards and Conformance Framework and with the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) attached to the WTO Agreement:

    1. ensure the transparency of the standards and conformity assessment of APEC economies;
    2. align APEC economies' mandatory and voluntary standards with international standards;
    3. achieve mutual recognition among APEC economies of conformity assessment in regulated and voluntary sectors; and
    4. promote cooperation for technical infrastructure development to facilitate broad participation in mutual recognition arrangements in both regulated and voluntary sectors.
    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will:

    1. develop, by the end of 1997, the sections of its Action Plan related to alignment with international standards, taking into account the outcomes of the case studies in the four priority areas (electrical and electronic appliances, food labelling, plastic products and rubber products) as well as developments in further priority areas to be considered in 1996;
    2. participate actively in the international standardization activities of international standardizing bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in accordance with the rules and procedures of these organizations;
    3. pursue mutual recognition arrangements in regulated sectors through (i) the development of bilateral, multi-sectoral mutual recognition arrangements, which might at a later stage provide the basis for plurilateral arrangements; and (ii) the development of plurilateral mutual recognition arrangements in particular sectors, endeavoring to complete a pilot project on food products in 1997 and to develop an arrangement on information exchange on toy safety in 1996; and
    4. consider participation in the Treaty of the Metre (La Convention Du Metre) and the Treaty of OIML (La Convention Instituant Une Organisation Internationale De Metrologie Legale) by 2005 in accordance with the rules and procedures of these treaties.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will take Collective Actions with regard to standards and conformance in the following four areas.

    ALIGNMENT WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
    APEC economies will:

    1. consider, in 1996, further priority areas for alignment with international standards; and
    2. conduct a comprehensive review of progress on alignment with international standards in 2000 and in 2005.
    MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT
    APEC economies will, in cooperation with relevant specialist regional bodies such as the Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Co-operation (APLAC), the Asia Pacific Legal Metrology Forum (APLMF), the Asia Pacific Metrology Program (APMP), the Pacific Accreditation Co-operation (PAC) and the Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC):

    1. identify, in 1996, additional priority areas for the development of mutual recognition arrangements in regulated sectors;
    2. encourage establishment of and participation in, by 2000 in the case of industrialized economies and 2005 in the case of developing economies, a network of mutual recognition arrangements in voluntary sectors;
    3. strive to establish a network of mutual recognition arrangements on a sector by sector basis in most regulated sectors, starting with mutual acceptance of test results and going on to establish mutual recognition of other possible forms of conformity assessment; and
    4. study the adequacy of monitoring and review mechanisms for maintaining confidence in mutual recognition arrangements.
    COOPERATION ON TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
    APEC economies will:

    1. develop in 1996 a mid-term program to improve technical infrastructure by 2000, and undertake regular reviews and follow-ups for technical upgrading; and
    2. conduct a comprehensive review on implementation of the above program after 2000.
    TRANSPARENCY
    APEC economies will:

    1. conduct a survey in 1996 to assess the availability of and access to standards and conformance information in each APEC economy and also systems for the exchange of such information; and
    2. develop, by 2005 in the case of industrialized economies and 2010 in the case of developing economies, a database and network system to carry information on:
      (i) the standards and conformance systems of APEC economies;
      (ii) accredited testing/calibration laboratories, quality systems certification/registration bodies and accreditation bodies;
      (iii) the status of mutual recognition arrangements; and
      (iv) the status of alignment of APEC economies' standards with international standards.
  1. CUSTOMS PROCEDURES

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will facilitate trade in the Asia-Pacific region by simplifying and harmonizing customs procedures.

    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will take actions toward achieving the above objective:

    1. along the lines of the Strategic Direction of the Action Program of the Sub-Committee on Customs Procedures; and
    2. taking fully into consideration the Guiding Principles (FACTS: Facilitation, Accountability, Consistency, Transparency, Simplification) of the above Action Program.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will take Collective Actions with regard to customs procedures in the following areas.

    • TARIFF NOMENCLATURE HARMONIZATION
      APEC economies will harmonize tariff nomenclature by adopting or abiding by the principles of the International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS Convention) by 1996.

      PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION
      APEC economies will make available to the public information on administrative guidelines, procedures and rulings in addition to customs laws and regulations by 1998.

      SIMPLIFICATION AND HARMONIZATION ON THE BASIS OF THE KYOTO CONVENTION
      APEC economies will simplify and harmonize customs procedures by adopting or abiding by the principles of the International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs Procedures (Kyoto Convention) by the indicative target of 1998, together with encouraging APEC economies to actively participate in the work of the Customs Cooperation Council (World Customs Organization; WCO) in the review of the Kyoto Convention in accordance with the WCO rules and procedures.

      COMPUTERIZATION THROUGH UN/EDIFACT
      APEC economies will enhance computerization of customs procedures by adopting and supporting the UN/EDIFACT standard by 1999.

      ALIGNMENT WITH WTO AGREEMENTS
      APEC economies will:
    1. harmonize customs valuation systems by adopting or abiding by the principles of the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (WTO Customs Valuation Agreement) by 2000, while encouraging further acceleration, if possible, through technical assistance; and
    2. protect intellectual property rights by adopting or abiding by the principles of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) by 2000, with regard to border control while encouraging further acceleration, if possible, through technical assistance.

    APPEAL PROVISION
    APEC economies will introduce clear appeal provisions within each economy by 2000.

    ADVANCE RULING SYSTEMS
    APEC economies will introduce advance tariff classification ruling systems by 2000.

    TEMPORARY IMPORTATION
    APEC economies will provide facilities for temporary importation by 2000, by taking such action as acceding, where appropriate, to the Customs Convention on the A.T.A. Carnet for the Temporary Admission of Goods (the A.T.A. Convention).

    RISK MANAGEMENT APPROACH AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE SYSTEMS
    APEC economies will explore the possibility of introducing a risk management approach and applying modern electronic commerce systems to facilitate cargo clearance.

    COMMON DATA ELEMENTS
    APEC economies will explore the feasibility of harmonizing among APEC economies common data elements for customs processing of cargo to facilitate international trade.

    COMMON FIELD SURVEYS
    APEC economies will work towards conducting common field surveys on the time required for cargo clearance, recognizing the necessity of a common yardstick.

    IMPLEMENTATION, TECHNICAL COOPERATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
    APEC economies will develop implementation plans and a framework for coordinated technical assistance and human resources development in support of the above Collective Actions, with particular emphasis placed on implementation of customs procedure-related agreements such as the WTO Customs Valuation Agreement and the TRIPS Agreement.

    PROMOTION OF DIALOGUE WITH THE BUSINESS/PRIVATE SECTOR
    APEC economies will promote dialogue with the business/private sector (importers, exporters, customs brokers, forwarders, etc.) within each economy to assist in improving customs-related trade practices.
  1. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will ensure adequate and effective protection, including legislation, administration and enforcement, of intellectual property rights in the Asia-Pacific region based on the principles of MFN treatment, national treatment and transparency as set out in the TRIPS Agreement and other related agreements.

    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will:

    1. ensure that intellectual property rights are granted expeditiously;
    2. ensure that adequate and effective civil and administrative procedures and remedies are available against infringement of intellectual property rights; and
    3. provide and expand bilateral technical cooperation in relation to areas such as patent search and examination, computerization and human resources development for the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement and acceleration thereof.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. deepen the dialogue on intellectual property policy among APEC economies;
    2. survey the current status of intellectual property rights protection in each APEC economy including the related statutes and corresponding jurisprudence, administrative guidelines and activities of related organizations;
    3. develop a contact point list of public and business/private sector experts on intellectual property rights and a list of law enforcement officers, the latter list for the purpose of establishing a network to prevent cross-border flow of counterfeits;
    4. exchange information on well-known trademarks as a first step in examining the possibility of establishing an APEC-wide trademark system;
    5. exchange information on current intellectual property rights administrative systems with a view to simplifying and standardizing administrative systems throughout the region;
    6. study measures, including development of principles, for the effective enforcement of intellectual property rights; and
    7. implement fully the TRIPS Agreement no later than January 1, 2000 and examine ways to facilitate technical cooperation to this end.
  1. COMPETITION POLICY

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will enhance the competitive environment in the Asia-Pacific region by introducing or maintaining effective and adequate competition policy and/or laws and associated enforcement policies, ensuring the transparency of the above, and promoting cooperation among APEC economies, thereby maximizing, inter-alia, the efficient operation of markets, competition among producers and traders, and consumer benefits.

    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will:

    1. review its respective competition policy and/or laws and the enforcement thereof in terms of transparency;
    2. bimplement as appropriate technical assistance in regard to policy development, legislative drafting, and the constitution, powers and functions of appropriate enforcement agencies; and
    3. establish appropriate cooperation arrangements among APEC economies.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. gather information and promote dialogue on and study, starting from 1996;
      i) the objectives, necessity, role and operation of each APEC economy's competition policy and/or laws and administrative procedures, thereby establishing a database on competition policy;
      ii) competition policy issues that impact on trade and investment flows in the Asia-Pacific region;
      iii) areas for technical assistance and the modalities thereof, including exchange and training programmes for officials in charge of competition policy, taking into account the availability of resources; and
      iv) the inter-relationship between competition policy and/or laws and other policies related to trade and investment;
    2. deepen competition policy dialogue between APEC economies and relevant international organizations;
    3. continue to develop understanding in the APEC business community of competition policy and/or laws and administrative procedures;
    4. encourage cooperation among the competition authorities of APEC economies with regard to information exchange, notification and consultation;
    5. contribute to the use of trade and competition laws, policies and measures that promote free and open trade, investment and competition; and
    6. consider developing non-binding principles on competition policy and/or laws in APEC.
  1. GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will:

    1. develop a common understanding on government procurement policies and systems, as well as on each APEC economy's government procurement practices; and
    2. achieve liberalization of government procurement markets throughout the Asia-Pacific region in accordance with the principles and objectives of the Bogor Declaration, contributing in the process to the evolution of work on government procurement in other multilateral fora.
    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will:

    1. a. enhance the transparency of its government procurement regimes and its government procurement information; and
    2. establish, where possible, a government procurement information database and provide the information through a common entry point.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. conduct questionnaire surveys in 1996 to exchange information on existing government procurement regimes and on publication of government procurement information in APEC economies;
    2. establish contact points in 1996 to facilitate on-going exchange of the above information;
    3. hold workshops, seminars and training courses, starting from 1996, on government procurement procedures, laws, regulations and regional and plurilateral agreements, including the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (ANZCERTA) and the Agreement on Government Procurement of Annex IV of the WTO Agreement;
    4. encourage establishment of an APEC government procurement information database in 1996, including information on procurement opportunities and the provision of a common entry point (such as World Wide Web (WWW) Home Page on the Internet) for participation by members on a voluntary basis; and
    5. develop, by 2000, a set of non-binding principles on government procurement.
  1. DEREGULATION

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will:

    1. promote the transparency of their respective regulatory regimes; and
    2. eliminate trade and investment distortion arising from domestic regulations which not only impede free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region but also are more trade and/or investment restricting than necessary to fulfill a legitimate objective.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies, taking into account work done in other areas of APEC activity will:

    1. publish annual reports detailing actions taken by APEC economies to deregulate their domestic regulatory regimes; and
    2. develop further actions taking into account the above reports, including;
      (i) policy dialogue on APEC economies' experiences in regard to best practices in deregulation, including the use of individual case studies to assist in the design and implementation of deregulatory measures, and consideration of further options for a work program which may include:
      - identification of common priority areas and sectors for deregulation;
      - provision of technical assistance in designing and implementing deregulation measures; and
      - examination of the possibility of establishing APEC guidelines on domestic deregulation; and
      (ii) regular dialogue with the business community, including a possible symposium.
  1. RULES OF ORIGIN

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will:

    1. ensure full compliance with internationally harmonized rules of origin to be adopted in relevant international fora; and
    2. ensure that their respective rules of origin are prepared and applied in an impartial, transparent and neutral manner.
    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will:

    1. align its respective rules of origin with internationally harmonized rules of origin to be adopted as a result of the WTO/WCO process; and
    2. ensure predictable and consistent application of rules of origin.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. gather information on APEC economies' respective rules of origin, both non-preferential and preferential, and operation thereof without duplicating WTO work in this area, exchange views and develop a compendium of rules of origin for the use of the business/private sector;
    2. facilitate, complement and accelerate, in the short term, WTO/WCO work on harmonization of non-preferential rules of origin; and
    3. study in due course the implication of rules of origin on the free flow of trade and investment, with a view to identifying, in the longer term, both positive and negative aspects and effects of rules of origin related practices.
  1. DISPUTE MEDIATION

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will:

    1. encourage members to address disputes cooperatively at an early stage with a view to resolving their differences in a manner which will help avoid confrontation and escalation, without prejudice to rights and obligations under the WTO Agreement and other international agreements and without duplicating or detracting from WTO dispute settlement procedures;
    2. facilitate and encourage the use of procedures for timely and effective resolution of disputes between private entities and governments and disputes between private parties in the Asia-Pacific region; and
    3. ensure increased transparency of government laws, regulations and administrative procedures with a view to reducing and avoiding disputes regarding trade and investment matters in order to promote a secure and predictable business environment.
    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will:

    1. provide for the mutual and effective enforcement of arbitration agreements and the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards;
    2. provide adequate measures to make all laws, regulations, administrative guidelines and policies pertaining to trade and investment publicly available in a prompt, transparent and readily accessible manner; and
    3. promote domestic transparency by developing and/or maintaining appropriate and independent review or appeal procedures to expedite review and, where warranted, correction of administrative actions regarding trade and investment.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. with respect to resolution of disputes between APEC economies;
      i) promote dialogue and increased understanding, including exchange of views on any matter that may lead to a dispute, and cooperatively examine on a voluntary basis disputes that arise, utilizing policy dialogue such as the "Trade Policy Dialogue" of the CTI;
      ii) give further consideration as to how the above Trade Policy Dialogue or similar functions of other fora may be used by APEC economies for the exchange of information, enhanced dialogue and mediation; and
      iii) examine the possible future evolution of procedures for the resolution of disputes as the APEC liberalization and facilitation process develops;
    2. with respect to resolution of disputes between private parties, and between private parties and APEC economies;
      i) provide CTI with a listing of arbitration, mediation, and conciliation services available to private entities of other APEC economies, including a description of any such service which might provide a useful model for private-to-government dispute resolution in the Asia-Pacific region, and make such information widely available to the business/private sector in the Asia-Pacific region;
      ii) provide CTI with comments regarding experiences with the above services;
      iii) accede where appropriate by 1997 to international agreements for the settlement of disputes between governments and private entities such as the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States; and
      iv) accede where appropriate by 1997 to the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention);
    3. with respect to transparency;
      promote transparency on an APEC-wide basis, through, for example, publication of a guide book on arbitration, mediation, and conciliation services available in each APEC economy; and
    4. with respect to the above collective actions, prepare a report on progress, with recommendations, by the end of 1996.
  1. MOBILITY OF BUSINESS PEOPLE

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will enhance the mobility of business people engaged in the conduct of trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region.

    GUIDELINES
    Each APEC economy will contribute positively to the work on the mobility of business people being undertaken in relevant WTO fora.

    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. exchange information on regulatory regimes in regard to the mobility of business people in the region;
    2. examine the possibility of setting the scope for cooperation at a regional level aimed at streamlining and accelerating:
      (i) processing of visas for short term business travel; and
      (ii) arrangements for temporary residency for business people to engage in trade and investment; and
    3. establish and maintain a dialogue on mobility issues with the business community.
  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OUTCOMES

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will ensure full and effective implementation of Uruguay Round outcomes within the agreed time frame in a manner fully consistent with the letter and the spirit of the WTO Agreement.

    GUIDELINES
    1. Each APEC economy which is a WTO member will fully and faithfully implement its respective Uruguay Round commitments.
    2. Each APEC economy which is in the process of acceding to the WTO Agreement may participate in APEC Uruguay Round implementation actions through voluntary steps to liberalize its respective trade and investment regimes consistent with the WTO Agreement.
    3. Each APEC economy will, on a voluntary basis, accelerate the implementation of Uruguay Round outcomes and deepen and broaden these.
    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. utilize on an on-going basis Uruguay Round implementation seminars and other appropriate means to:
      (i) improve APEC economies' understanding of provisions in the WTO Agreement and obligations thereunder;
      (ii) identify operational problems encountered in implementation of the WTO Agreement and areas in which APEC economies may require technical assistance; and
      (iii) explore cooperative efforts to provide such technical assistance in implementation;
    2. consider implementation of suggestions for follow-on work from Uruguay Round implementation seminars; and
    3. undertake technical assistance based on discussion at the above seminars, including cooperative training projects targeted at prevalent implementation problems to be undertaken in conjunction with the WTO Secretariat and other relevant international institutions.
  1. INFORMATION GATHERING AND ANALYSIS (GROUNDWORK)

    OBJECTIVE
    APEC economies will secure a solid platform for the expansion and improvement of Actions in Specific Areas and APEC economies' respective Action Plans by undertaking inter-alia cross-sectoral work.

    COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
    APEC economies will:

    1. conduct surveys as necessary of trade and investment impediments;
    2. review and analyze the impact of trade liberalization in the Asia-Pacific region;
    3. study and monitor the impact of sub-regional trade arrangements such as NAFTA, Association of South-East Asian Nations Free Trade Area (AFTA) and ANZCERTA;
    4. develop databases with regard to merchandise trade, trade in services and direct investment, and update these regularly; and
    5. adopt international standards for trade in services and international investment data such as those developed by the IMF.

PART TWO: ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION

SECTION A: ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS

APEC economies will pursue economic and technical cooperation in order to attain sustainable growth and equitable development in the Asia-Pacific region, while reducing economic disparities among APEC economies and improving economic and social well-being. Such efforts will also facilitate the growth of trade and investment in the region.

APEC economies will conduct economic and technical cooperation on the basis of the principles of mutual respect and equality, mutual benefit and assistance, constructive and genuine partnership and consensus building. APEC economies shall make voluntary contributions commensurate with their capabilities and the benefits of the cooperation shall be shared broadly.

In pursuing economic and technical cooperation, APEC economies will develop an environment favorable to the effective operation of market mechanisms and integrate into the cooperation process the business/private sector as well as involve wherever possible other pertinent institutions.

Recognizing their shared responsibility for sustainable development, APEC economies will integrate environmental considerations in all relevant APEC activities.

While respecting the autonomy of each APEC economy over its policies, APEC economies recognize Common Policy Concepts, Joint Activities and Policy Dialogue as the three essential elements to be taken into account in each specific area of APEC economic and technical cooperation.

  1. COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    APEC economies will develop Common Policy Concepts including goals, basic principles and priorities in each specific area of APEC economic and technical cooperation. APEC economies recognize that, given the diversity of the Asia-Pacific region, Common Policy Concepts will serve to:

    1. guide Joint Activities; and
    2. inform the development of each APEC economy's policies/activities.
  2. JOINT ACTIVITIES
    In the light of Common Policy concepts, APEC economies will engage in Joint Activities such as compilation and sharing of data and information, surveys, training, seminars, research and technical demonstrations. Various means including Partners for Progress (PFP) will be utilized to strengthen these activities. APEC economies will prepare economic outlooks for the Asia-Pacific region that will provide a useful reference for APEC activities. Joint Activities will serve to:

    1. improve APEC economies' ability to analyze current and future economic trends, and develop and implement policy measures;
    2. utilize regional resources more effectively; and
    3. increase the effectiveness of policy measures.
  3. POLICY DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will hold Policy Dialogue on economic issues.
    1. Dialogue on Common Policy Concepts and Joint Activities will serve to:
      - develop and review Common Policy Concepts;
      - evaluate the effect of Joint Activities;
      - develop further Joint Activities; and
      - identify the best way to implement cooperation in the light of differences in policies among APEC economies.
    2. Dialogue on each APEC economy's policies/activities will allow APEC economies to:
      - share expertise and experience; and
      - consult and exchange views on their policies/activities in the light of Common Policy Concepts.

SECTION B: ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION IN SPECIFIC AREAS

Bearing in mind the three essential elements, APEC economies will pursue economic and technical cooperation. The following is an illustrative reference of Common Policy Concepts and Joint Activities/Dialogue in specific areas of cooperation. The full text of Action Programs in specific areas is annexed and forms an integral part of this Action Agenda.

  1. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    The people of the Asia-Pacific region are its most important asset. The human resources needs of the region are both expanding and diversifying in tandem with its growth and dynamism. APEC economies will address these by setting priority on the following:

    1. providing a quality basic education;
    2. analyzing the regional labor market to allow sound forecasting of trends and needs in HRD;
    3. increasing the supply and enhancing the quality of managers, entrepreneurs, scientists and educators/trainers;
    4. reducing skills deficiencies and unemployment by designing training programs for applications at all stages of a person's working life;
    5. improving the quality of curricula, teaching methods and instructional materials for managers and other workers;
    6. increasing opportunities for people seeking to gain skills; and
    7. preparing organizations and individuals to remain productive in the face of rapid economic and technological changes,
      as stated in the Declaration on a Human Resources Development Framework, and further engage in:
    8. promoting HRD toward the liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment.
    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will undertake Human Resources Development Program 21, consisting of twenty-one sub-programs. In this program, APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. implement the APEC Business Volunteer Program, a mechanism for facilitating the voluntary dispatch of business experts among business/private entities in the region in order to exchange and transfer managerial and technical skills;
    2. implement the APEC Leaders' Education Initiative, a set of measures to enhance regional cooperation in higher education and to study key regional economic issues, including the establishment of an APEC Study Center in each APEC economy and the promotion of collaborative research on APEC-related issues;
    3. conduct studies on teacher development practices, on science education programs, and on uses of technology in education, in order to promote the provision of high quality instruction in basic education;
    4. conduct training of executives, managers, engineers, officials and other workers to increase the supply and enhance the quality of these people;
    5. accelerate cooperation relating to trade and investment liberalization and facilitation by means such as holding training courses on standards and conformance and intellectual property rights in order to ensure the availability of the experts required to maintain effective systems in these fields; and
    6. facilitate the mobility of qualified persons in the region through bilateral agreements between interested APEC economies for the mutual recognition of professional qualifications,
      and, in addition to this program, will:
    7. conduct regular dialogue on the HRD policies and HRD situation of each APEC economy, establishing performance indicators such as adult literacy levels and levels of enrollment in elementary and secondary education as a basis for conferral.
  1. INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    Improved levels of industrial science and technology will enhance economic growth, quality of life, environmental protection and development of a well-balanced industrial structure. APEC economies will improve the IS&T capabilities of each economy by recognizing eight non-binding principles for effective collaboration and by setting priority on the following:

    1. improving researcher exchange and human resources development;
    2. improving the flows of technological information and technology;
    3. facilitating joint research projects;
    4. improving the transparency of regulatory frameworks; and
    5. contributing to sustainable development.
    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. establish APEC Joint Research Promotion Guidelines on pre-competitive industrial science and technology which set out common procedures for project identification, cost allocation, protection of intellectual property rights and other aspects, aiming to complete these by the end of 1996;
    2. launch joint research projects in and after 1996, starting with projects related to disaster prevention and the environment;
    3. seek to expand and develop researcher exchange schemes and engineer training schemes;
    4. hold the APEC Technomart, a technology fair, to provide the business/private sector with better access to technological information and expertise;
    5. implement projects to improve the flows of information on science and technology, including a study on information access mechanisms with emphasis on strengthening information networks at research laboratory level, to be completed by mid-1997;
    6. conduct dialogue on the IS&T policies and IS&T situation of each APEC economy, establishing IS&T indicators such as the number of research institutes as a basis for conferral; and
    7. review the IS&T regulatory framework of each APEC economy in fields such as industrial standards and intellectual property rights, to ensure transparency.
  1. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    SMEs are a critical engine for growth and innovation in the Asia-Pacific region, able to respond flexibly to technological advancement and the diversification of consumer needs. APEC economies will cooperate to maintain and develop SME dynamism by improving the economic environment so that SMEs may fully exploit their creativity and mobility, by helping SMEs address priority fields - human resources, information access, technology and technology sharing, financing and market access - and by improving SME policies. APEC economies will base their cooperation on principles such as:

    a. ensuring the availability and transparency of information on their respective SME policies to help improve SME policies in the region;

    b. developing and implementing non-discriminatory market-oriented SME policies to maximize SMEs' responses to market mechanisms and to provide the most favorable environment for SME economic activities and for further SME development; and

    c. recognizing that SME policies should focus not only on individual enterprises, but also on group enterprises and cooperatives.

    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. convene training programs, seminars and workshops, including the APEC SME Leaders Workshop on SME policies;
    2. undertake an Industrial Outlook Study, consisting of comprehensive/sectoral studies on intra-regional industrial interdependence, to enable SME policy makers and SMEs to come to a better understanding of the economic environment;
    3. survey each economy's SME policies and compile APEC best practices in this area in order to enhance mutual understanding of APEC economies' policy practices;
    4. design a plan of activities for the APEC Center for Technology Exchange and Training for SMEs as a resource center for handling information networking, developing training opportunities and organizing SME-targeted activities;
    5. survey the financial markets for SMEs and hold a Venture Capital Workshop to explore ways to promote SME access to venture capital; and
    6. compile in 1996 a directory of agencies which provide support for SMEs.
  1. ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    The pace of economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region depends on the improvement of economic infrastructure. APEC economies will seek to accelerate infrastructure improvement, facilitating investment in infrastructure and encouraging business/private sector involvement.

    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. conduct analytical work on issues relating to the overall infrastructure environment;
    2. explore ways to enhance the effectiveness of infrastructure improvement, such as:
      - compiling best practices for use as benchmarks in the examination of the respective roles of the public and business/private sectors;
      - developing guidelines on infrastructure investment to ensure a more transparent and coherent environment for the business/private sector; and
    3. conduct public-private sector dialogue and consider the possibility of establishing a forum on infrastructure.
  1. ENERGY

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    Regional energy consumption is rapidly increasing in tandem with the economic expansion of the Asia-Pacific region, turning energy into a potential bottleneck to sustainable economic growth. APEC economies will address the simultaneous achievement of the 3Es by sharing policy principles and enhancing closer cooperation toward the development of APEC as a sustainable energy community. APEC economies will set priority on the following:

    1. fostering a common understanding on regional energy issues;
    2. facilitating investment in the energy sector where appropriate;
    3. reducing the environmental impact of the energy sector; and
    4. accepting equivalence in accreditation and increasing harmonization of energy standards.
    APEC economies will develop a range of shared energy goals, building on and expanding the fourteen non-binding policy principles for rational energy consumption.

    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. begin preliminary work on the Asia Pacific Energy Research Center (APERC) immediately, establish the APERC in mid-1996, and initiate joint work on the APEC regional energy outlook to be completed by 1997;
    2. consolidate the APEC energy database and disseminate the data contained therein regularly;
    3. develop by the end of 1996, in partnership with the business/private sector, a guidance framework to facilitate investment in electricity infrastructure by removing institutional, regulatory and procedural impediments;
    4. consider issues associated with addressing the risks and impact of potential imbalances between energy supply and demand;
    5. improve environmental performance through expanded programs in the fields of clean coal technology, renewable energy sources and end-use energy conservation measures, leading to exploration of cooperative multilateral programs to reduce climate change concerns such as demonstration projects which lead to joint implementation;
    6. reach agreement on the mutual recognition of testing protocols and the accreditation of laboratories, as well as the acceptance of test results, by the end of 1999; and
    7. undertake mutual examination of energy policies in line with common policy concepts.
  1. TRANSPORTATION

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    The ability of a transportation system to efficiently handle the movement of people and goods is critical in order to maximize economic productivity, facilitate trade and contribute to the mobility of people. APEC economies will therefore seek to develop an efficient, safe and integrated regional transportation system. The development of the transportation sector should promote equitable economic development to help people of all APEC economies share the benefits of economic growth. APEC economies will set priority on the following:

    1. facilitating the harmonization, coordination and transparency of transport policies, regulations, procedures and standards;
    2. promoting timely rational investment in the transport infrastructure;
    3. encouraging the efficient use of existing infrastructure through the application of appropriate trade and transport facilitation techniques;
    4. promoting transport system safety and security;
    5. promoting, on the basis of fair and equitable access to markets, a more competitive transportation operating environment and cooperating to address institutional constraints which affect the provision of transportation services; and
    6. facilitating the improvement of productivity, skills and efficiency of labor and management in the transport industry.
    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. complete by 1996 Phase Two of the Transportation Congestion Points Study, analyzing the major bottlenecks at land, sea and airports, and complete by 1996 Phase Three, providing a best practices manual of how economies can address their respective bottlenecks;
    2. start considering at an appropriate time how to enter into strategic consultation in development of well integrated regional transportation infrastructure;
    3. establish in 1996 the APEC Urban Transport Forum to develop transportation systems that help reduce congestion and are energy efficient and environmentally friendly;
    4. establish in 1996 a group of experts to identify aviation safety problems;
    5. complete by 1997 a survey/analysis of aviation safety and security problems and develop a plan of action based on experience with a pilot project on satellite navigation and communication systems;
    6. consider by 1997 establishing a group of marine safety experts and a security experts group, based on experience with the aviation safety experts group; and
    7. commence in 1996 the evaluation of seafarers training needs.
  1. TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    As the economic interdependence among APEC economies deepens, telecommunications and information infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region has a critical role to play in strengthening market linkages and enhancing trade and investment liberalization and facilitation. APEC economies will therefore seek to develop an Asia-Pacific Information Infrastructure (APII) on the basis of the following ten principles:

    1. encouraging APEC economies in the construction of domestic telecommunications and information infrastructure based on their own reality;
    2. promoting a competition driven environment;
    3. encouraging business/private sector investment and participation;
    4. creating a flexible policy and regulatory framework;
    5. intensifying cooperation among APEC economies;
    6. narrowing the infrastructure gap between the developed and the industrializing economies;
    7. ensuring open and non-discriminatory access to public telecommunications networks for all information providers and users in accordance with domestic laws and regulations;
    8. ensuring universal provision of and access to public telecommunications services;
    9. promoting diversity of content, including cultural and linguistic diversity; and
    10. ensuring the protection of intellectual property rights, privacy and data security.
    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. conform, where appropriate, to the Guidelines on Trade in International Value-Added Network Services (IVANS) by 1998 and generally conform, where appropriate, to the Guidelines on the regional Harmonization of Equipment Certification Procedures;
    2. continue to work to harmonize administrative procedures governing certification of customer telecommunications equipment;
    3. develop and begin to implement on an elective basis a model Mutual Recognition Arrangement on Conformity Assessment for telecommunications equipment by the end of 1997;
    4. publish regular reports on the state of the telecommunications regulatory environment and infrastructure development in each APEC economy in order to improve business/private sector access to related policies, regulations and other information;
    5. promote electronic commerce through seminars, studies on electronic data interchange application development, and experiments on the interoperability and suitability for electronic commerce of various networks;
    6. increase cooperation in infrastructure activities between APEC and other international institutions and fora;
    7. implement the APII Test-Bed Projects, including the demonstration projects for interoperability and interconnectability, in cooperation with G7 countries; and
    8. promote human resources development by means such as holding training courses on privatization and competition in telecommunications and information industries, and working towards a distance learning pilot project for experts in this area.
  1. TOURISM

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    The tourism industry is of growing importance in promoting economic growth and social development in the Asia-Pacific region. APEC economies will seek to achieve long-term environmental and social sustainability of the tourism industry by setting priority on the following:

    1. removing barriers to tourism movements and investment and liberalizing trade in services associated with tourism;
    2. developing and implementing the concepts of environmental and social sustainability in tourism development;
    3. facilitating and promoting human resources development;
    4. enlarging the role of the business/private sector;
    5. developing cooperation and programs in the fields of information-based services related to trade in tourism; and
    6. sharing information among APEC economies.
    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. protect and conserve cultural heritage and natural sites;
    2. promote best practice models for environmental and social sustainability in tourism development;
    3. expand tools for human resources development;
    4. develop a database of core statistical information and improve the system for exchanging tourism information on a regular basis;
    5. undertake environmental projects in the tourism area;
    6. identify impediments to tourism growth and formulate strategies for the improvement of tourism movements and investment in the region; and
    7. conduct a dialogue among APEC economies to facilitate and enlarge the roles of the private/business sector in tourism development.
  1. TRADE AND INVESTMENT DATA

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    Improved data on international trade and investment among APEC economies will facilitate better understanding of trade and investment activities in the Asia-Pacific region and contribute to better market analysis and policy-making. APEC economies will improve the availability and comparability of international trade and investment data, and establish a database for such statistics.

    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter- alia:

    1. develop a Trade and Investment Data Database (TIDDB), which will include data on international merchandise trade, services trade and investment;
    2. work towards improving the consistency of data by adopting the latest international standards for compilation of data on international services trade and investment; and
    3. provide training in use of the TIDDB system and in the collection, compilation and estimation of data on international services trade and investment.
  1. TRADE PROMOTION

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    APEC economies will seek to stimulate intra-regional trade through trade promotion measures such as holding trade fairs, disseminating information on trade-related issues and potential business opportunities, and providing advice on trade-related procedures.

    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. hold APEC Trade Fairs on a regular basis;
    2. establish a network among trade promotion organizations in order to enhance linkages and cooperation among them;
    3. improve and convene training courses for the furtherance of trade promotion-related skills, and develop a mechanism for the exchange of trade promotion experts;
    4. compile information on measures supporting and facilitating import and export activities in each APEC economy, and disseminate this to the business/private sector and trade promotion organizations; and
    5. exchange information in the field of trade financing.
  1. MARINE RESOURCE CONSERVATION

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    The marine environment contributes substantially to the economic viability of APEC economies through trade in fisheries and aquaculture products, other marine commodities and tourism. These are dependent on active conservation of marine resources and the marine environment, degradation of which has significant socioeconomic costs. While enhancing trade and investment in marine products, APEC economies will aim to protect the marine environment and to ensure continuing socioeconomic benefit. APEC economies will set priority on the following:

    1. addressing coastal zone planning and management;
    2. enhancing coordination in the implementation of relevant UNCED recommendations; and
    3. reviewing and resolving marine algal toxin issues.
    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. make recommendations on related policies, standards, certification, regulatory requirements, conformance assurance and other areas;
    2. improve the flow of information on marine resource management and conservation;
    3. provide guidance on management of critical areas of their coastal zones, and also on development of effective communication, information exchange and planning mechanisms by 1998;
    4. assess structural barriers to the conservation and sustainable development of marine resources, set priorities for action and develop an action framework by 1999; and
    5. conduct policy dialogue to share scientific and technical information, to identify and assess environmental issues, and to develop practical, action-oriented approaches to maintaining the quality of the marine environment.
  1. FISHERIES

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    Fisheries is unique in that its production base, as a natural resource, is limited. APEC economies will seek to maximize the economic benefits to be gained from fisheries resources by promoting their long-term optimum sustainable utilization. Accordingly, APEC economies will set priority on the following:

    1. promoting the conservation and sustainable use of fisheries resources, the sustainable development of aquaculture as well as habitat preservation;
    2. solving common fisheries resource management problems and aquaculture disease control;
    3. enhancing the food safety and quality of fish and fisheries products; and
    4. promoting sector specific work relating to trade and investment liberalization and facilitation.
    JOINT ACTIVITIES / DIALOGUE
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. hold a conference on the quality and safety of fisheries products;
    2. compile a profile of agencies involved in fisheries in APEC;
    3. improve seafood inspection regimes;
    4. gather and analyze information on supply and demand trends relating to fisheries trade;
    5. encourage the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points);
    6. promote cooperation in resolving resource management issues;
    7. promote harmonized standards for fisheries products;
    8. consider applying economic instruments to address environmental and resource management challenges; and
    9. collect and analyze information on sector specific barriers to trade including tariff and non-tariff measures and administrative barriers.
  1. AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY

    COMMON POLICY CONCEPTS
    Given differences in needs and levels of development among APEC economies, strengthening Agricultural Technical Cooperation (ATC) is expected to lead to balanced agricultural development, resource utilization and conservation as well as improved food variety and quality. APEC economies will seek to enhance the capability of agriculture and its related industries to contribute to economic growth and social well-being. APEC economies will undertake ATC on the basis of principles including:

    1. paying due consideration to the diversity of agricultural sectors;
    2. recognizing the rapid changes occurring in the agricultural sector; and
    3. adding value to activities undertaken by international agencies.
    JOINT ACTIVITIES
    APEC economies will, inter-alia:

    1. promote the exchange of plant and animal germplasm by, for instance, establishing a network for germplasm-related information by 1997;
    2. enhance biotechnology research and development by, for instance, establishing a database on expertise by 1997;
    3. promote marketing and processing of agricultural products by, for instance, collecting and exchanging information on technical cooperation capacities and requirements by 1996;
    4. strengthen regional cooperation in plant and animal quarantine and pest management through, for instance, the establishment of an information network;
    5. promote cooperation in the development of agricultural finance systems through, for instance, the exchange of information and experts among APEC economies by 1997;
    6. promote technology transfer by, for instance, identifying areas of common interest by 1996; and
    7. promote agricultural technical training by, for instance, establishing training programs and information assistance for electronic dissemination by 1998.

SECTION C: FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION

APEC fora will make proposals for the expansion and improvement of Common Policy Concepts, Joint Activities and Policy Dialogue in their respective areas where appropriate. The inclusion of additional areas to those initially defined in Section B: Economic and Technical Cooperation in Specific Areas may be considered. Proposals on the above will be submitted to the Ministerial Meeting.

APEC fora, including Working Groups, the Policy Level Group and the Experts Meeting, will begin the work outlined in Section B: Economic and Technical Cooperation in Specific Areas immediately after the Osaka Economic Leaders' Meeting, cooperating with each other to enhance the efficiency of APEC activities. In the above process, duplication of work among APEC fora should be avoided.

Each APEC forum will submit an annual progress report to the SOM. The SOM will review this progress and submit a report to the annual Ministerial Meeting for review. Work by relevant APEC Ministerial Meetings should be duly recognized.

This Action Agenda may be revised and improved as necessary based on the overall progress of liberalization, facilitation and cooperation in APEC.


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